Thursday, September 4, 2008

Chinese Dingling

The Dingling or Gaoche , Chile , Tiele were an ancient Siberian people. They originally lived on the bank of the Lena River in the area west of Lake Baikal and began to expand westward in the 3rd century. They were still around during the time of the Xiongnu Empire. They appear under alternate names in historic records. It is not certain whether an earlier name for them existed, but they might have been correlated with the ''Guifang'' , a northern tribe that appears in the oracle bone inscriptions from Yinxu during the 1st millennium BCE.


Origin and migration

Very little is known about the origin of the Dingling. They were a warlike group of hunters, fishers, and gatherers of the southern Siberian mountain taiga region from Lake Baikal to northern Mongolia. During the 2nd century BCE, they became subjects to Modu Shanyu along with 26 other tribes, including Yuezhi and Wusun, of whom very little of the names of these tribes is known. To the north of the Xiongnu were the Gekun , known as the Yenisei Kyrgyz in later historic records, who lived at the headwaters of the Yenisei around Tannu Uriankhai. Further to the west lived the Hujie around the Irtysh. Other neighboring tribes lived north of Xiongnu such as the Hunyu , Qushe , and Xinli only appear once in Chinese records, and their exact location is unknown. The four groups except Qushe are identified as the proto-Turks by Pulleyblank, who had argued a connection for the Xiongnu's language earlier. The origin of the Dingling, according to the biography of the Gaoche from a 6th century book known as ''Weishu'', can be traced to the vague and fabled Chidi , who lived around northern China proper during the Spring and Autumn period. Another account from the book called ''Mozi'' mentioned a total of eight Di groups related to Chidi, however only two of the other and Chidi were known. Extant Chinese documentation does not mention the physical appearance or anthropology of the Dingling, and their name appears rarely.

Some groups of Dingling also moved to China and settled there as early as during Wang Mang's reign. This group of Dingling formed part of the southern Xiongnu tribes known as Chile during the 3rd century, from which the later name Chile originated. They adopted the last name Zhai and founded a dynasty known as Wei during the Sixteen Kingdoms period. The name "Dingling" was replaced by "Gaoche" and "Tiele" in historic records between the 4th century and the 7th century. Since the word "Dingling" was interchangeable with "Gaoche", "Chile" and "Tiele" and gradually replaced through times, its very hard to reconstruct the early history of the tribes. The Gaoche spoke a language very similar to the language of the earlier Xiongnu. According to the ''Weilue'', a group of Dingling escaped to the western steppe in Kazakhstan. By the time of the Rouran, the Gaoche comprised six tribes tribes, and the twelve clans, who in turn belonged to the bigger Tiele tribal grouping by the times of G&. The Gaoche were ruled over by the Rouran. One group known as Fufuluo, led by their chieftain A-Fuzhiluo , escaped and founded a state at Turpan between 487-541.


Prior to the presence of Gaoche, there was a sufficient amount of times without a tribal league on the steppe, in particular after the dissolved of short-lived Xianbei confederacy in 181 to the founding date of Rouran Qaghanate in 402. During this period, the Dingling began absorbed into the rest of the northern Xiongnu by establishing permanent settlement further to the south between 85-87. After the defeat of , an estimated figure which reduce from the casualties and immigrants is give to 200,000 for the Xiongnu that were still activate on the northern steppe. One group which documented about 450,000 of them moved south east and incorporated into the Xianbei. Some remnant of Xiongnu managed to keep their identity until the early 5th century, they presence on the Orkhon River , under the tribal name known as the Bayeqi before eliminated by the Rouran. Due to the paucity of the written material, little is known about the period, though accounts concerning about the Xiongnu and Gaoche was given on the later historic records, which might had due to the result of absorption, as one account said:

At the same time, the Dingling were also being absorbed by the Xianbei, and through analysis about one-quarter of the clans does shown similarity by name that retain within the Gaoche and Tiele tribes. Among them, the Hegu and Yizhan , whom consisted in their high status clans were forbidden by marriage with the rest. While the early Dingling whom lived in China had began to adopt a several family name such as Zhai, Xianyu , Luo and Yan around the 3rd century.

Political relationship

Early period


The Dingling were subjugated first by the Xiongnu, whom later gradually weakened. During the numerous conflicts between the Chinese and the Xiongnu, the Dingling took the opportunity to revolt with help from neighboring tribes in 71 BCE. Together with the Wusun from the west and Wuhuan from the south east, the Dingling attacked the Xiongnu in 60 BCE and lasted for three years. This occurred during a split within the Xiongnu ruling clan of Luanti . In 51 BCE, they were together with the Hujie and Gekun defeated by of the Xiongnu on his way to Kangju. Over the next century, the Dingling probably made several more uprisings. However these additional revolts were only mentioned in year 85, when they made their last attack on the Xiongnu together with the Xianbei. Thereafter, the Dingling became absorbed into the rest of the remaining northern Xiongnu and the Toba under the confederacy of Xianbei chief Tanshihuai . After his death in 181, the Xianbei moved southward and the Dingling took over the steppe from them. Over the next few centuries, the Dingling established themselves firmly on the steppe as the indigenous groups when they became known as the Gaoche, and later, the Tiele.

Gaoche and Chile

The name "Chile" and "Gaoche" first appeared in Chinese literature during the campaigns of Former Yan and in 357 and 363 respectively. However, the protagonists would be equally addressed as "Dingling" in the literary record of the Southern Dynasties. The name ''gao'' ''che'' was a byname given by the Chinese, and were explained by the sources below:

The relationship of Gaoche with the Rouran began after 391, when the Rouran chief, Heduohan , was killed by the Touba Northern Wei. Heduohan's son raided several tribal dependencies of the Touba in retaliation, but reportedly suffered a serious defeat in 399, and was forced to flee westard. Here Shelun defeated the Hulu tribe and subjugated them. With the aid of a Hulu named Chiluohou , Shelun conquered most of the Gaoche tribes and proclaimed himself Kaghan of the Rouran on March 11 402. Many Gaoche, such as Chiluohou, were promoted to establish better control.

During the reign of Shelun, and his successor , the Rouran pushed as far as the Issyk Kul, where they defeated the Wusun drove to the south. In the east they raided against the Northern Wei before they were severely defeated in a campaign on June 16 429. By the end of the battle and subsequently, as many as 1.5 million Gaoche were seized and settled to adjacent areas of the capital in the south.

After the settlement they were named as the Western Chile , including a portion at the Ordos Desert to the south of the Yellow River known as the Hexi Chile ), the Eastern Chile in the line between Wuzhou , and the Northern Chile to the north and around periphery. The greater part of latter two possibly escaped back to the steppe and were not heard of after 524 and 445 respectively.

The Western Chile tribes took initiative and rebelled between 524-526 before moving further south and eventually becoming assimilated.

With the lost of numerous subjects and vital resource, the Rouran went into a temporary decline. However in 460 they launched campaigns in the west that destroyed the remnant of Northern Liang. During a campaign against Khotan, the king wrote his supplicatory letter to the Toba Emperor in 470, stating that all of the statelets in the west that had submitted to the Rouran. In 472, attacked over the western border of Northern Wei, and by the time of his death in 485, Yucheng had restored the Kaghanate to a status even more powerful than the times of Datan.

During these wars, a southwestern Gaoche tribal group known as the Fufuluo united twelve clans and rebelled, but were defeated by the Rouran. They escaped and established a state northwest of Gaochang in 487. From then on, little was known about the rest of the Gaoche on the steppe prior to the G&. The Fufuluo allied with the Northern Wei in 490 and fought against the Rouran until 541 when they were dispersed by them.


The Fufuluo was a Gaoche tribe of twelve clans, dwelling close to the Gaochang kingdom (likely by the Tuin River of the . Early on a Fufuluo clan known as the Yizhan allied with the Touba. In 481, the Fufuluo began to interfere with Gaochang by deposing one of their kings. After the dead of Yucheng, his belligerent son fought more wars against the Touba. In a dissension, A-Fuzhiluo betrayed him, and in 487, together with his younger cousin Qiongqi , they managed to bring the follow clans of over 100,000 yurts to escape from the two pursuing armies, lent by Dulun and his uncle through defeating them. After the settlement, he founded a statelet under the title of Ulu Beglik . Like the later Qibi and Xueyantuo in 605, the Fufuluo divided their rule between the north and south at the Dzungaria. Like and his son earlier in the west, the Hephthalites helped Mietu. He returned to his realm and Biliyan , the inheritor of A-Fuzhiluo, was overthrown by his tribesmen, while shortly, he paid tribute to the Touba. In 508, attacked the Fufuluo and won over a victory, but was killed by Mietu on his course back. Later in 516, , son of Futu, defeated Mietu, and in reprisal had him towed to death by a horse. The Fufuluo gone into exile for several years under the refuge of Hephthalites. In 520, his younger brother Yifu , repulsed Chounu and restored the realm. After the defeat, Chounu returned to the east, where he was killed in a coup, in which the ruling clan of Yujiulu was spilt into two factions. In 521, the Fufuluo penetrated into the Rouran territory, and through struggles they were finally repulsed by 524. Thereafter, the Fufuluo suffered a series of defeat from before annihilated in 541. During the last decade, they helped the Eastern Wei to combat with the Western Wei in the civil war, after being destroyed, the notability surrendered to them.

Late period

Emergence of the Tiele

In 546, during an uprising, the remaining of the Fufuluo now operated the name Tiele were defeated by at the Dzungaria, around 250,000 of them were incorporated into his army. In 552, Tumen sent his army and defeated Anagui just north of the Chinese border, he eliminated the remnant of Rouran to the north and subjected the Tiele on the second year before his death around March 12. Suribadalaha give details on the tribes extract from the ''Suishu'' based on semantic evidences under Mongolic and Turkic languages and Chinese naming, they were divided into seven locations and over 40 tribes:

The Tiele were a large tribal group, however its unlikely they would be under a certain league. Most references on the tribes in the remote area to the west of the Pamir Mountains was sparse as they happened to be mentioned in passing , and by the end of 6th century nothing was known about them. These tribes among in the eastern and northern areas, such as the Guligan , Duolange Xijie and Baixi were being awarded afterward, albeit a few like Fuluo , Mengchen and Turuhe disappeared. Like the Göktürks, the Tiele were probably one of the many nomadic Turkic peoples on the steppe, as a few of the scholars had already noted the name "Tiele" and "Tujue" shared more or less in semantic connection. It was first suggested to be interpreted as "Tölis" by and , but was pointed out to be inaccurate in 1937 by Cen Zhongmian, as Tölis applied to the Turkic title of official in the east that also came to be attached to the qaghan. This view was later supported by Onogawa Hidemi in 1940, who had also speculated on a Tiele's origin for the Ashina clan. The Tiele were ruled by the Göktürks during the mid 6th century and early 7th century, many of their tribal chiefs were expelled and some had been killed during this period. They allied themselves to rebel against the Göktürks during the turmoil between 599-603. But might had began as early as in 582, when rumor was spread about a resist from the north during a raiding campaign led by Ishbara away from the capital. Among the rivals of Ishbara in the west was Tardu, son of Ist&, who had allied with , a qaghan at the northern Dzungaria and Khovd River, and declared independent. In 587, , inheritor of Ishbara, captured Apa with the help of Chinese, but died second year on a campaign in the west around December 28. Later on, Dulan took over his reign and together with Tardu in 599, he launched a cvil war against his son Qimin, who sided with the Chinese. However, he was unsuccessful and got assassinated along the battle with the Chinese. His partner Tardu, took over his realm and created a turmoil over the Qaghanate. Eventually in 603, he was revolted by the Tiele tribes in a huge uprising provoked by the Chinese and escaped to the Tuyuhun. Earlier when Apa was captured, Nili took over him, but died subsequently after the failure of Tardu in the east. His son succeed him in the Western Qaghanate, and levied heavy taxes from the Tiele, to avoid being revolted, he gathered several hundreds of chiefs and murdered them. Soon, an alliance among the Tiele was formed under the Qibi and Xueyantuo tribes in 605 to overthrown him. They occupied most of the Dzungaria and defeated his suppressing army, taking several important cities, including Kumul, Karashahr and Gaochang, and pushed him further west to the lower Ili River by 607. After succeed, the Qibi chief Geleng was proclaimed as the qaghan by the tribesmen and likewise the Xueyantuo chief as the subordinate qaghan. At the same year, the alliance qaghan Geleng, then allied with the Chinese to defeat the Tuyuhun for a resolve after a conflict at Dunhuang with them. In 611, Shekui, a qaghan from Taskent and grandson of Tardu, attacked Chuluo and forced him to escape into China. The return of Shekui marked the end of rebellion, however, exactly when the rebels were put down is unclear. As one Chinese account indicated that the Gaochang kingdom still remained under their vassal until the year 612. While they were most likely being subjected after this year as Shekui restored the order of the Western Qaghanate. Failure to put down these uprisings led to a fatal division within the Turk's ruling Ashina clan. Under the leadership of in 628, grandson of Yishibo, the Xueyantuo made their crossing over the Altai, and quickly founded a confederation with rest of the Tiele at the east.

Role of the Xueyantuo

At the beginning of what is known about the Xueyantuo, both Xue and Yantuo were two separated tribes, the Xue appeared earlier as Xinli and not referred to again until the 7th century. After Yishibo, the Xueyantuo founded a short-lived Qaghanate over the steppe under , his son and nephew , the last of which eventually delivered himself to the Chinese and surrendered. On March 27 630, the Xueyantuo allied with the Chinese crushed the Eastern Qaghanate at a mount of the Yinshan completely, escaped, but was handed over into the hands of Chinese by his subordinate qaghan on May 2. Thereafter, the Xueyantuo dominated most of the northern steppe. In 632, they repulsed an army of Si Yabgu Qaghan from the Western Qaghanate, and subsequently subjugated the Qarluq at the Ulungur and Irtysh River and the Yenisei Kyrgyz tribes. In 634, one of their rival Dubu Qaghan , son of , who dominated much of the eastern half of the Western Qaghanate was eliminated before escaped into China. Followed after, they maintained a friendly relationship with the Chinese until 639, when a sneaking foray was planned among the Turks at the capital by Ashina Jiedushuai , who had been despised by the Chinese emperor. He allied with his nephew Ashina Heluohu and selected him as the leader of the group on May 19. They were unsuccessful, and by the end of pursuing, over 40 rebels were executed, while Heluohu was spared and expelled to the deep south. After the insignificant incident, a consent was made on August 13, and as an excuse, a deportation of all Turks to the north of Ordos was carried out in an attempt to restore the puppet Eastern Qaghanate as a barrier, a previously enemy state of the Xueyanto, which could disperse their attention over the territorial competition in the west. Among the Turk nobles, Ashina Simo was selected as the Göktürks qaghan with a capital at the border. The plot, however, was failed, as the prince was unable tied his people, many of his tribesmen had escaped to the south by 644 after a series of unsuccessful threatening intrude made by the Xueyantuo defended by the Chinese. Those defeats fraught with the Chinese under an offensive stance had made their tribal allies began to lost confidence on them. The crisis situation went deepen on the second year as a coup d'état had taken place within the clan. On August 1 646, they were destroyed by the Huihe and the Chinese, while the remnant of them would be eliminated two years later on September 15.

Chinese subjugation

Shortly after 646, the Huihe and the rest of the twelve Tiele chiefs arrived to the Chinese court. They were bestowed either with the title of commander-in-chief or prefect under the loose control of the northern protectorate or the "pacificed north" , whose seat and name changed under certain time. The Huihe was prominent among the Tiele tribes next to the Xueyantuo, the name was first appeared in 390 as Yuanhe . Under the leadership of Pusa , son of chief Tejian , the Huihe co-cooperated with the Xueyantuo and made stand against the Eastern Qaghanate. Soon upon his death, his successor Tumidu formed a new alliance with the Chinese and turned against their previously partner. Thereafter, Tumidu was granted with the Chinese title like the rest of the Tiele chiefs, but carried the title of qaghan among the coequal tribes, of whom now pay annual furs to the Chinese to fulfill their tax . In 648, he was murdered by his nephew Wuhe and another tribesman named Juluobo . Both were related to the Chebi Khan as son-in-law, the last house of the Eastern Qaghanate at the north of Altai, who now held hegemony over the surrounding tribes, including the Qarluq. The incident alerted the Chinese, and Wuhe was soon killed under a trick upon receiving his uncle position from the Chinese deputy in the north, while later Juluobo was detained on a summon. On November 17, a replacement was made for Porun to carry his father title. Since the submission, the Tiele had participate in several campaigns under the Chinese call. Starting earlier on January 26 to 661, under the column of Ashina Sheer , Yuan Lichen , Gao Kan , Liang Jianfang , Cheng Zhijie , and Xiao Siya . Wherein had resulted in successes with the capture of Chebi in 650 and end of the Western Qaghanate in 657, except for the last campaign at Goguryeo which probably killed Porun. During those calls, a few regularity visit would paid to restrain the tribes. After 658, such visit was halted, and the first revolt was broke out as early as in 660 starting with the Sijie , Bayegu , Pugu and Tongluo . The reason for this revolting is unclear, but might had due to the Chinese impressment over the surrounding tribes for the campaigns. They were suppressed two years later by the Chinese in 662 on the upstream of the Selenga River around , the fight did not went on for long, and a mass killing was supposed to be committed by two leading commanders. According to one exaggerated account from ''Tang Huiyao'', around 900,000 surrendered tribesmen were slaughtered, it is certainly sure that a large number of them were captured and paid to the soldiers. After the event, a message was sent to the north to appease the restlessly Tiele, and the situation became stabilize. In 669, analogous unsuccessful revolt had also been made by the Xueyantuo, however the details of this occurrence are vagueness. The last of revolt was mentioned in 686, leading by the Pugu and Tongluo to correspond with the Ashina clan, whom had succeed to form the Second Turkic Eastern Qaghanate under Ilteris Sad in 682. They were suppressed immediately by an army dispatched from around Juyan, and a portion of them were moved to this region along with the seat of protectorate under the jurisdiction of . Earlier since the rebellion, contacts between the northern protectorate to the capital was cut off, and the only way to pass through it was through the area of .

Rise of the Uyghur Qaghanate

After the disintegration of the Eastern Qaghanate in 630, many Turk nobles were resettled either at the Chinese border or in the capital by June 28. Some went on participating in campaigns on the frontier for the Chinese. In 679, a serious rebellion was led by three Turkic nobles. Among them, Ashina Nishufu , direct descendant of Illig, was chosen as their qaghan. They were suppressed by the Chinese quickly and their leader, Nishufu, was betrayed and killed by his own troops in a conflict. The rest of the Turks managed to escape from the armies and allied with Ashina Funian to make another rebellion. Funian declared himself as qaghan in 681, but he and his supporters did not succeed. They were again suppressed and by the end of both uprisings, over 50 participants were executed on November 16 at the capital. The remaining rebellious Turks succeeded to form the Second Turkic Eastern Qaghanate under Ilteris Sad and his 5,000 supporters. They were mostly activate in the southern region bordering China at the Čoγay mount from the beginning. As most occurrences merely deal with their countlessly raids within the Chinese border over the decade. Exactly when or how the Tiele came under their subjection is slurr. However, during this period, some portions of pro-Chinese Tiele groups, such as Huihe, Qibi, Sijie and Hun had started to escape into the Hexi corridor as the result of their conquest prior to 704 and dread, for they had earlier co-corporated with the Chinese against them. Little is known about the Tiele at this point of time, according to the Tonyukuk and Kültigin Orkhon script, the Turk made five out of forty-seven attacks on the Oguz which led by Ilteris. Among them, four seem to be a mere raids while the last attack could be estimated as their re-subjection on the northern steppe. Based on the accumulated evidence and the given Chinese dates, circa date for Tiele submission to the Göktürks would be around 687, and probably received without much resistance. The establishment of a second Göktürk capital over the foot of the scared mountain Ötüken brought unrest to the Tiele tribes. After the Huihe chief was killed, they were recruited for their annual raiding campaigns over the Chinese border after 694. These raids were halted in 708, as fortification was carried out over the Ordos loops by the Chinese. A sequel to these raids continued elsewhere as turned his attention to the west over the Turgesh and Qarluq tribes between 708-715. By this time, some portions of the Tiele had escaped into China and were settled by the Chinese in and elsewhere, while others made their revolting as early as in 707 starting with the Bayegu. These revolts had extended to 716 and Qapagan, who was on his way back from suppressing the revolting Huihe, Tongluo, Baixi, Bayegu and Pugu, was accidentally killed by a Bayegu tribesman named Xiezhilue on July 22. In conclusion, not all tribes were involved in the revolts, two of the northernmost tribal allies, the Guligan and Dubo did not participate in any of the revolts. Soon, took over the reign and together with Tonyukuk, began to appease the subjected Tiele. Tonyukuk was born in China and was considered a sort of brainy statesman in both Turkic and Chinese accounts. Meanwhile, a friendly relationship was built with the Chinese, and till the end of the Second Eastern Qaghanate only one raid in 720 was made on the Chinese border. He started to call for a return of the former members of the Tiele tribes who had settled in China and risen in status for the tribal chiefs, especially the Huihe within the Qaghanate. During this period, many Tiele had betrayed the local Chinese authorities and escaped to the north, in particular the five communities around Liang, Ling, , , and , while minor resists had also occurred through the process. Among the returning members of the Tiele tribes was the Huihu, specifically the Yaoluoge, whose had escaped into China until 727. The Yaoluoge consisted one of nine clans of Huihu, and had dominated probably for six generations since the fall of Xueyantuo. After Bilge was poisoned, there were factional struggles within the ruling clan which several of the inheritors were unable to overcome. Within a few years, an alliance was established between the Basmyl , Uyghur or Huihu and Qarluq. They overthrew the Göktürks and killed the qaghan. Most of the heirs were eliminated subsequently. At the same time the Basmyl chief, who was approved as qaghan, was overthrown by both allies. In 745, the exiled qaghan of the Göktürks was killed by the Uyghur chief named Qutlugh Boyla, son of Hushu . He founded the new Qaghanate under the title of Qutlugh Bilge Köl Qaghan. The name "Tiele", and the "nine allies " or Toquz Oguz had not been heard since, as it was probably replaced by the name Huihu in the historic records, from then on the Huihu consisted of two additional tribes, and seven former Tiele tribes including itself, while the eight of the former Tiele tribal names had now been either disappeared or fallen apart.

On oq connection

The origin of on oq were given in two contradicting accounts:

The first statement dated their origin back to the beginning of the First Turkic Qaghanate with Istämi, younger brother of Tumen, who had brought with him the ten tribes probably from the Eastern Qaghanate at Mongolia and left to the west to expand the Qaghanate. The exact date for the event was not recorded, and the shanyu here might had referred to . The second statement contributed to Dielishi, who took over the throne in 635 and began to strength the state by further affirmed the supposed initial ten tribes and the two tribal wings in contrast to the rotation of houses between the Tumen and Istämi lineage in the Western Qaghanate. Thereafter, the name "ten tribes" literary became as a shortened address for the Western Turks in Chinese records on occasions, however it should be noted that, those division did not comprised the five major tribes, whom activate further east to the ten tribes. The preceding tribes consisted an essential eight tribes and possessed by ten chief-in-commands afterward, called the on oq by preference. Those were adjoined to the five Duolu tribes, and the three Nushipi inherent tribes. While the more potential Nushipi tribes such as A-Xijie and Geshu were being sub-divided into two tribal group with a greater and lower title under a fixed tribal name during the reformation. The relationship between the ten tribes and the ruling elites were divided into two groups, the more familial Duolu tribes, whom held the title qur, and the more low-rated Nushipi in west, whom probably made up of Tiele conscripts initially.

Turgesh and Chebishi

Little is known about the origin of Turgesh, they were a group of Duolu tribes believed to be originated from the Turuhe tribe, whom appeared earlier on banks of the Tuul River. Among them was the Chebishi , of whom were related to the Qibi tribe. The Qibi were dispersed shortly after the defeat of chief Gelang, in the east they were put under the rule of a tudun named Ashina Hubo , who later known as the Chebi Qaghan. The origin of Qibi, according to the epigraphy of Qibi Song erected in 730, a Tiele mercenary in Chinese service, can be traced to the areas of the Khangai Mountains prior to its present at the in 6th century. They were related to the Jiepi of Gaoche, who were situated to the east of Fufuluo. In 610, Shekui subdued Taskent, a vassal of Chulo, and installed with his tigin , he also formed a political marriage with Samarkand and submitted its surrounding cities. On the second year, he defeated Chuluo and established his capital over the Khan Tengri . After his dead, his younger brother Tong Yabgu Qaghan took over him. During his reign, the Western Qaghanate reached to its height and was adjoined with the Sassanid Persia to the west and to the south. The capital was therefore shifted further west to the springs north of Taskent to secure the area beyond. Tong attacked and occupied Tokharistan , and a royal from the Ashina clan was sent over to command the region. Xuanzang, a contemporary pilgrimage who visited the area, related about the information on the Turks who had overlorded the country. Later pilgrimage Hyecho, commented that both positions of ruling elite and troop in the region were possessed by the ''Tujue'', whereas the natives were being the ''Hu''. Most of the foreign kings came under the rule of Turks at this times were converted to ilteber , and was supervised respectively by the tudun. According to the Chinese source, under Tong the Turks advanced into the Sassanid and killed Khosrau II, his son ascended to the throne, but died a year later, and the Turks killed Khosrau II's daughter, who had been assisted to the throne. He seemed to be known as the Djeboukha-Khan by the Armenian author Moses . In 621, he proposed a marriage alliance with the Chinese and planned an attack on the Eastern Qaghanate on the next year winter, but the plan was obstructed by Illig in the middle. Another proposal was made in 625, while the Chinese state was severely attacked. Due to the failure of his intend to expand the east, his reputation had lost among the Duolu tribes, many tribes including the Qarluq then defected to the Eastern Qaghanate. In 630, he was murdered by his uncle Sipi, and for decades the Turks began struggling with each other for the throne.

Religious beliefs and culture

The culture aspects of Dingling can be seen from the Noin-Ula excavation from northern Mongolia, there were a total of 212 tumulis, the mountains Noin-Ula called by local population Tzun-Mode, are chiefly grown with pine, their higher zones with larch and cedar. The inventory of burial finds were divided into three groups by Trever as shown below,
* Imported objects ––– Chinese silk embroidery.
* Objects coming from the West, certainly not from Greece and her Near East colonies, but belonging to the culture of Bactrian upper classes and of Parthian Iran, both impregnated with Hellenistic culture.
* Object of local workmanship.
The objects of Chinese origin are being more or less well known, as W.P. Yetts has mentioned them in his article. Some of the objects also contains Taoist elements and ideographs, from the silk with cloud-scrolls and horsemen and the lacquered bowl with birds. In the damask design, the horseman is holding something, from which ascends a cloud of vapour. Reading from right to left, the Chinese ideographs are "hsin shen ling kuang ch'eng shou wan nien" . Thus the meaning may be "renews spirituality and extends longevity to a myriad years". A accompanying inscriptions dispel all doubt as to their identity, for they are called "hsien jen" , a Taoist illuminates or fairies. Yetts conducted that, the philosopher "Guang Cheng" is prominent figure in Taoist myth, and had been regarded as an early incarnation of Laozi. As for the lacquered cup, there is an incised inscription too, and was deciphered by Prof. Otto Kümmel and Umehara Sueji during their sojourn in Leningrad, and running thus: "September of the 5th year of the Chein-p'ing ". The manufacturer–––"Wang-t'an-ching". Painter of the decoration–––"Huo", another manufacturer I', superintended by "Pien wu" . As to two other sign on the bottom of the cup, they are according to Yetts to be read as follows "Shang lin" , which is the name of a park to the west of Chang'an, capital of Western Han, the identity of the tomb is not known.

The "western" objects reached the Xiongnu besides through commercial relations with the West, being the result of the commercial capital of the ancient world having penetrated into the remotest regions of the East, as mentioned above. From countries producing articles of luxury, such as Bactria, impregnated as it was with Hellenistic culture, the merchants imported goods into the land of the Xiongnu; this is probably what called into life the most remarkable local art of wool embroidery destined for the use of the princes; we have in Chinese technic and with the use of local dyes made of plants Hellenistic plant motives and realistic images of the chiefs, with all the details of clothing, way of hair dressing and horsegear. From literary sources we have some knowledge of the upper classes daily life: The dead princes are buried in 2 coffins, an outer and inner one; their clothes are of gold and silver brocade and of fur. About the burial customs of the people we know nothing.

Dingling and Tiele language

Naming and etymology

Although the words ''dingling'', ''gaoche'', ''chile'' and ''tiele'' are often used interchangeably, this usage is erroneous as pointed out by modern academia. Dingling refers to an extinct ethnic group. The Gaoche was an ethnic-tribe that expelled by from Mongolia and founded a state at Turpan, which was descended in part from the Dingling. The Tiele was a collection of tribes of different ethnic-origins which largely descended from the Chile. All four groups somewhat happened to occupy quite a similar geographical area in succession of each other with an exception for the first one.


According to linguist experts on Slavic languages, the Proto-Dinglings likely spoke a or synthetic language with an and exhibited a linguistically and culturally unified community. In ''Zur jenissejisch-indianischen Urverwandtschaft '', German scholar, Heinrich Werner developed a new genealogical language family which he terms ''Baikal-Siberic''. By extension, he groups together the peoples , the Na-Dene Indians, and the Ding-ling folk of the ancient Chinese chronicles to ''Proto-Dingling''. The linguistic comparison of Na-Dene and Yeniseian shows that the quantity and character of the correspondences point unequivocally to common origin .

Ding-ling can be seen to resemble both , the Yeniseian word *dzheng ''people'' > Ket de?ng, Yug dyeng, Kott cheang; and , the Na-Dene word *ling or *hling ''people'', ie. as manifested in the name of the Tlingit .

Rulers of Gaoche

References and notes

Primary sources

*Sima Guang . A Translation and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang . Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0847-4.
*Sima Guang . A Translation and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang . Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0804-0.
*Sima Guang . A Translation and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang . Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0808-3.
*Sima Guang . A Translation and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang . Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0864-4.
*Sima Guang . A Translation and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang . Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0865-2.
*Sima Guang . A Translation and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang . Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0870-9.
*Sima Guang . A Translation and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang . Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0881-4.
*Sima Guang . A Translation and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang . Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0871-7.
*Sima Guang . A Translation and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang . Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0810-5.

Secondary sources

*Duan, Lianqin . "Dingling, Gaoju and Tiele". Shanghai: Shanghai People's Press. ISBN 7-208-00110-3.
*Li, Jihe . "A Research on Migration of Northwestern Minorities Between pre-Qin to Sui and Tang". Beijing: Nationalities Press. ISBN 7-105-05908-7.
*Lu, Simian . "A History of Ethnic Groups in China". Beijing: Oriental Press. ISBN 7-5060-0735-5.
*Pulleyblank, Edwin G . "Central Asia and Non-Chinese Peoples of Ancient China". Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-86078-859-8.
*Trever, Camilla . "Excavations in Northern Mongolia ". Leningrad: J. Fedorov Printing House. OCLC 2566311.
*Shen, Youliang . "A Research on Northern Ethnic Groups and Regimes". Beijing: Central Nationalities University Press. ISBN 7-81056-131-6.
*Suribadalaha . "New Studies of the Origins of the Mongols". Beijing: Nationalities Press. OCLC 19390448.
*Wang, Xiaofu . "Political Relationship Between the Chinese, Tibetan and Arab". Beijing: Peking University Press. ISBN 7-301-01962-9.
*Xue, Zongzheng . "A History of Turks". Beijing: Chinese Social Sciences Press. ISBN 7-5004-0432-8.
*Zhang, Bibo, and Dong, Guoyao . "Cultural History of Ancient Northern Ethnic Groups in China". Harbin: Heilongjiang People's Press. ISBN 7-207-03325-7.
*, from the Weilue, by Yu Huan

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